Asalamu alaikum Mufti,
I was going through some personal matters and under a bit of stress. I made dua to Allah and promised I would fast to thank Him for all His mercies during this tough time. Now I am having bad nausea and I am unable to fast. With regards to the fast what are my options? Thank you.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
If you made Dua and a promise, and did not take an oath by the name of Allah, it will constitute a general vow. Effort must be made to fulfil this promise and you should to do the fast when you have the health, as you promised. If you unable to do so, Istigfaar should be made and seek forgiveness from Allah. However, no Kaffārah (expiation) is necessary for the promise you made. Similarly in the ruling if your statement was only an intention.
If one did take an oath in the name of Allah, then that oath will have to be fulfilled, or the person will be sinful for breaking the oath and they will have to make atonement for breaking the oath. In the case where you are unable to fast, one will also make Kaffarah (atonement).
A person can make atonement for breaking an oath by doing one of the following:
- Feeding ten poor people morning and evening to their fill.
- Providing ten poor people with suitable clothing which will be suitable to perform Salaah with.
- If, for some reason a person is unable to do one of the first two, then he must fast for three consecutive days
And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best.
Mufti Arshad Ali
Darul Iftaa, Jaamia Madinatul Uloom (Trinidad)
 الإختيار لتعليل المختار، ج 4، ص 76}
قالَ: (وَلَوْ نَذَرَ نَذْرًا مُطْلُقًا) أَيْ بِغَيْرِ شَرْطٍ وَلَا تَعْلِيقٍ كَقَوْلِهِ: عَلَيَّ صَوْمُ شَهْرٍ أَوْ نَحْوِهِ (فَعَلَيْهِ الْوَفَاءُ بِهِ) لِمَا تَقَدَّمَ (وَكَذَلِكَ إِنْ عَلَّقَهُ بِشَرْطٍ فَوُجِدَ) لِأَنَّ الْمُعَلَّقَ بِالشَّرْطِ كَالْمُنَجَّزِ عِنْدَهُ، وَلِأَنَّ النَّذْرَ مَوْجُودٌ نَظَرًا إِلَى الْجَزَاءِ، وَالْجَزَاءُ هُوَ الْأَصْلُ وَالشَّرْطُ تَبَعٌ، وَاعْتِبَارُ الْأَصْلِ أَوْلَى فَصَارَ كَالْمُنَجَّزِ