Is it permissible for a Non-baligh child to lead a congregation of children in Fardh Salah.
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
It is permissible for a child (non-Baligh) to lead a congregation of children. However, is it not permissible for a child to lead an adult (Baligh) despite the status of the Salah (i.e. whether it be Fardh, Wajib, Sunnah or any regular voluntary Salah).
A child is rewarded for his good deeds and acts of worship if performed in conformity to the laws of Shariah. A child is not Mukallaf (legally responsible/obligated) hence his/her actions will be regarded as Nafl (optional) and consequently its rewards. The scholars of Islam however, have stated that such is the case where the child is Mumayyiz (discerning and mentally mature child i.e. in general, he distinguishes between that which is harmful and beneficial).
Based on this, if a mentally matured child (Mumayyiz) is familiar with the laws pertaining to Salah, in that, he performs Salah correctly , then it is better that he is not lead by a child who un-familiar with its laws.
And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best
Mufti Kaleem Muhammad
Darul Iftaa, Jaamia Madinatul Uloom (Trinidad)