Salaam, please give the ruling on fireworks. Is it halaal or haraam? Please give evidence if possible,
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
Fireworks if used in a small, moderate manner without wastage nor causing harm to others or animals is allowed. However, fireworks as used generally for public displays or celebrational occasions entails a large wastage of money and also the possibility of causing harm and damage to people, property and animals. Such fireworks will then be prohibited or at least disliked (Makrooh).
Almighty Allah says in the Holy Quran,
وَلَا تُسْرِفُوا إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ (الأنعام: 141)
“And do not be wasteful/extravagant. Indeed, (Allah) does not like those who waste.”
The Prophet ﷺ mentions: Do not cause harm or return harm.(Ibn Mājah)
In another Hadith The Prophet ﷺ warns: If someone kills so much as a sparrow or anything larger without a just cause, then Allah the Exalted will ask him about it on the Day of Resurrection. (Nasaai)
Moreover, fireworks during celebrational occasions etc. is a practice of the non-Muslims, and has become a common feature in their celebration. Therefore a Muslim should stay far away from their ways and manners especially when celebrating blessed occasions like Eid.
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: Whoever imitates a nation/people, is from them.” (Abu Dawud)
The enjoyment of a few short moments is the result of a wastage of wealth, harm to humans, property, the earth and animals.
Fireworks create highly toxic gases and pollutants that poison the air, the water and the soil, making them toxic to birds, wildlife, pets, livestock
Chemicals from fireworks do not just disappear into thin air. When burned and exposed to oxygen, substances undergo a chemical reaction called combustion. This chemical reaction produces two results: Short-lived entertainment and toxic atmospheric pollutants.
The temporary enjoyment of fireworks releases a host of contaminants that affect air quality and can contribute to climate change, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matter.
A Horror Show for Animals
Imagine being an animal, comfortably sleeping in your habitat, and suddenly being awakened by hearing a sequence of booming noises and witnessing unexpected bright flashes out of nowhere, yet unable to escape – a horrifying experience. Unfortunately, this is the reality for many animals.
According to the Humane Society of the United States, animals “become … frightened by the noise and commotion of fireworks,” resulting in them becoming lost, abandoning their habitats, and suffering from health consequences, whether it be stress or getting hit by a vehicle.
Bad for Soil, Worse for Waterbodies, Worst for the Ecosystem
Perchlorate, a chemical compound, is often added to fireworks, working as an oxidiser to facilitate their upward propulsion. When fireworks burst into their colourful lights, chemical debris is left scattered across the ground. Perchlorate is one of them and it is often associated with contaminating soil and water. This chemical remains in the environment for long periods, easily absorbed by neighbouring flora. When it ends up in waterbodies, it can also affect fish development.
The Prophet ﷺ warns: Whoever kills so much as a sparrow unjustly will have it pleading to Allah on the Day of Resurrection, saying: O Lord, he killed me for no reason, and he did not kill me for any beneficial purpose. (Nasā’ī)
And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best.
Mufti Arshad Ali
Darul Iftaa, Jaamia Madinatul Uloom (Trinidad)