As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.
Weekly Fiqh classes on various important subjects are conducted by Mufti Kaleem. These are beneficial and practical summaries of the classes.
Fifth & Sixth Point of Salaah
Jalsah (Sitting between the two Sajdah)
- Sitting upright between the two Sajdah is compulsory. It is not permissible to omit the Jalsah.
- If a person does not sit upright before performing the second Sajdah without a valid reason he will have to repeat his Salah, if done intentionally. If done unintentionally, Sajdah al Sawh will have to be performed.
- The following dua should be recited in Jalsah
- The gaze should be at the lap
- The hands should be the laps, with the tips just before the knees.
- The fingers should facing the Qiblah, thus it should not be placed on the knees.
- The fingers should be spaced slightly and not closely joined.
- Spread the left foot and sit on it, the right feet should be erected with its toes bent facing the Qiblah.
Qa’dah (siting posture, first and last)
There are two Qa’dah (sitting); the first sitting [after two rak’ah] in a three rak’ah or four rak’ah Salah and the last sitting. NB: In a two rak’ah Salah there’s only one sitting, in this sitting, the rules of the last sitting will apply.
- The sitting posture should be the same as the Jaslah.
- It is obligatory to recite Tashahud [both Imam and follower].
- Make a ring with the tip of the thumb and middle finger when saying “ash ha du“
- Raise the index finger (with the ring), at the time of saying ‘laa’ in Ash hadu al laa.
- Drop the index finger at the time of saying “illal” in ill lal laah 
- Stand immediately after Tashahud without delay.
- If a person [Imam/Munfarid], after reciting Tashahud, mistakenly commences Durood, to the extent of the word Muhammad [ﷺ] then Sajdah al Sawh will be obligatory. If recited intentionally then such an act will be highly reprehensible (Makrooh Tahreemi).
- If the Imam stands for the third Rak’ah before the Muqtadi can complete his recitation of Tashahud, the Muqtadi should complete his recitation then join the Imam. It is also permitted for the Muqtadi follow the Imam [i.e. leave the completion of Tashahud]
- If the Muqtadi finishes before the Imam, he should remain silent and wait for the Imam.
- If the Imam forgets the first sitting and stands, if he is closer to the standing position he should complete his standing thereafter the Muqtadi should follow him. It is not permissible that the Imam, after standing return to the sitting position [first sitting]. Similarly, it is not permissible that the followers insist [by Tasbeeh or indication], that the Imam returns [to the sitting position]. NB: Sajdah al sawh will be obligatory at the end.
- If the Imam is closer to the sitting position then he should return sitting and complete his Salah as normal. [without making Sajdah al Sawh]
- Stand after the completion of Tashahud stand, without taking support from the ground using the hands [except if there is a valid reason]. One may take support from his knees [using his hands].
- After reciting Tashahud, send salutations upon the Prophet ﷺ (Durood).
Question: Did the Prophet ﷺ send Durood (salutations) upon himself?
Answer: The Prophet ﷺ instructed us to perform Salah in the manner he performed it [in regards to actions and statements]. There isn’t any narration of the Prophet ﷺ which indicates that he ﷺ is exempted from certain actions or statements in Salah in which he instructed the Ummah. The Prophet ﷺ has instructed to recite Tashahud in Salah, part of which entails sending salutations upon the Prophet ﷺ. This shows clearly that the Prophet ﷺ used to send salutations upon himself. The recitation of Tashahud in Salah is solely an act of Ibadah, one is not allowed to negate using mere logic and analogy. The salutations mentioned in the Tashahud has the wording of the second person [السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ], this was said in the lifetime of the Prophet ﷺ, after the demise of the Prophet ﷺ the companions of the Prophet ﷺ did not see it fit to change the wording to the third person despite the fact that the Prophet ﷺ had died and left this word. The reason being is that they understood that this is an act of worship and mere logic cannot be applied.
Allah ﷻ and his Angels send salutations upon the Prophet ﷺ. The Scholars have stated that salutations from Allah ﷻ to the Prophet ﷺ refer to mercy, elevation of his status, praising his name among the Angels. Salutations from the Angels refer to dua for forgiveness. Thus, salutations of the Prophet ﷺ upon himself can have the meaning of any of the above.
The Prophet ﷺ instructed us upon hearing the Adhan to ask Allah ﷻ to grant him (the Prophet ﷺ) al Wasilah (a lofty status in Jannah). It is not possible that Prophet ﷺ would instruct his Ummah with such an affair thereafter exempt himself from directly imploring Allah ﷻ.
After having said this, if one is still of the opinion that the Prophet ﷺ did not send salutations upon himself, then that does not change the fact that we are required to recite Tashahud in our Salah as it is a direct command of the Prophet ﷺ.
- A person should make dua seeking the fulfillments of his needs of this world and the hereafter, dua for his parents and the general Muslims. It is better that the Duas made in Salah are Duas of the Prophet ﷺ or Duas mentioned in the Quran.
- It is not permissible to make dua in Salah other than in the Arabic Language. Also, the dua made should not resemble the statements of people [as mentioned earlier].
- Give Tasleem, one to the right and one to the left [both salaam are obligatory].
- After the first Salaam, it will not be correct to a new comer to join the Salah of the Imam as the following is terminated at the first Salaam.
- If however, the Imam has Sajdah al Sawh to make, then the Iqtidah [following] will not be terminated with the first Salaam [i.e. a new comer may join the Salah.]
- The face should be turned [at the time of Tasleem] until the cheeks are visible to those behind.
- If a person has to perform Sajdah al Sawh, after reciting Tashahud, he will give one salaam to his right then perform two Sajdah. Thereafter, he will repeat the recitation on Tashahud and complete his Salah as normal.
- If a person after giving Salaam[with the intention of completion], remembers he has to perform Sajdah al Sawh, then it is permissible for his to make the Sajah al Sawh, thereafter re-do the Tashahud and complete the Salah as normal [as long as he didn’t do an act that nullifies the Salah e.g. speaking, eating etc. Nb: If he turns away from the Qiblah or walks away he will still be able to make up as long as he did not leave the precincts of the Masjid]
- If a Sajdah was left out, then it can be performed before salaam, except that the Tashahud will be repeated, thereafter Sajdah al-Sawh will be performed and then Tashahud will be recited once again, thereafter Tasleem.
- If a person forgets the last sitting and stands, the moment he performs the first Sajdah for that [extra] Rak’ah the Salah will be nullified [the Fardh aspect].
- If the Imam forgets the last sitting and stands, he should not be followed. If the Imam does not return [to the sitting position], the followers should recite Tashahud and Tasleem by themselves.
- If the Imam makes Sajdah for the extra Rak’ah, before the followers make Salaam then the Salah of all [Imam and followers] will be nullified.
- Tasleem can be given with or without the definite article [ال] سلام أو السلام except that the former is the preferred opinion.
- The Tasleem should not be excessively prolonged.
- The Muqtadi will also utter salaam after the salaam of the Imam.
- After giving salaam to the right, the face should turn towards the Qiblah thereafter the second salaam should commence.
- When giving Salaams make intention to those at your right and left [Imam, followers and Angels]
 الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (1/ 509)
الثاني بسط الأصابع إلى حين الشهادة، فيعقد عندها ويرفع السبابة عند النفي ويضعها عند الإثبات، وهذا ما اعتمده المتأخرون لثبوته عن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – بالأحاديث الصحيحة ولصحة نقله عن أئمتنا الثلاثة،
 و ما قاله عبد الله بن مسعود رضي الله عنه فهو من اجتهاده
 حاشية الطحطاوي على مراقي الفلاح شرح نور الإيضاح (ص: 249)
“ثم يعيد القعود” طريق الإتيان بها أنه إذا تذكرها بعد السلام أو قبله بعد القعود أن يسجد المتروكة ثم يعيد القعود والتشهد ويسلم ثم يسجد للسهو ثم يقعد ويتشهد لأن العود إلى السجدة الصلبية يرفع القعود والتشهد وكذا السجدة التلاوية فلو لم يعد القعود وسلم بمجرد رفعه من السجدة بطلت صلاته لترك القعدة الأخيرة