Making up for missed Salaah, regardless the reason Salaah was missed.
Over a long period of time earlier in my life I have missed many salaah’s. I am now hearing two sides of opinions where making up for the salaah is concerned. On one hand i’m hearing that I have to make it up, and the other says I can’t as salaah missed due to oversleeping or forgetfulness are the only two conditions where it can me made up as there is no expiation other than for these two conditions as mentioned by the prophet sallalahu alayhi wasallam. I also heard that because I missed the salaah due to plain negligence and no consideration at all, i might have been out of the fold of Islam during that time. Some clarification on this matter would be greatly appreciated as I would take many many years of my life to make up for the years of salaah I have missed. JazakAllah.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
Importance of performing QADHAA (make up for missed) Salaah.
Salaah is one of the pillars of Islam and is Fardh (a compulsory duty) on every Muslim, whether male or female, healthy or sick, rich or poor, young or old, traveler or resident upon becoming an adult (mature). According to Shariah, a person is regarded to be baligh (mature) from the time he/she experiences adulthood. If by the age of fifteen he/she does not experience adulthood, Shariah will consider such a person as baligh (mature).
Regarding the importance of Salaah, the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
The barrier between kufr and Imaan is neglect of Salaah. (Tirmidhi)
The first thing that a servant will be questioned about (on the day of qiyaamah) will be salaah. Thereafter (he will be questioned about) all other actions. (Tabraani)
It is a major sin to miss a Salaah in its proper time without a valid reason. The severity and warnings of deliberately missing a Salaah is mentioned in many Ahaadeeth (narrations):
* The name of that person who misses an obligatory Salaah deliberately will be written on the door of Jahannam along with those who will enter it. (Kanzul Ummaal)
* Whoever misses a Fardh Salaah without a valid Reason and the time of that salaah expires, his Good deeds have been destroyed. (Musannaf ibniAbi shaybah)
* Whoever misses a Salaah, it is as if his family And wealth were destroyed. (Muslim)
Whether a Salaah is missed deliberately, forgetfully or with a valid reason e.g. severe illness, it has to be performed later. Performing it after the time of that particular Salaah has expired is called Qadhaa. The Qadhaa should be performed as soon as possible. To delay a Qadhaa unnecessarily is also incorrect.
If one missed any Fard Salah from the time one became baligh (mature or puberty), one must make Qadhaa (make up) for all missed Salaahs. The Fard Salaahs are; 2 fard of Fajr, 4 of Zuhr, 4 of Asr, 3 of Maghrib, 4 of Isha. Also the 3 Witr after Isha if missed would also have to be made up.
One must calculate the number of Salaah missed from the age of maturity. If one does not know the exact type and number of missed (Qadhaa) Salaah, then one should apply one’s mind and make an honest estimation of the missed Fard and Witr Salaah and make up for them. It is advisable to make an over estimate to be sure. One doesn’t need to know the dates of Qadhaa Salah. The intention should be of for example first Qadhaa Salaah of Fajr. Once the Fajr has been performed, the next Fajr will be the first Qadhaa of Fajr. The same procedure should be done for all missed Salaahs respectively.
One easy method of performing the outstanding Qadhaa is to pray one Qadhaa before or after each Salaah, or five Salaah in one go, on a daily basis. For example, before the Fajr Salaah perform two rakaat of Fajr Qadhaa. Similarly, before or after Ẓuhr Salaah perform the four rakaat of Ẓuhr Qadhaa and likewise Asr, Maghrib and ʿIshā’ including Witr. This way, one day’s Qadhaa will be performed in a day.
-If there are two, three, four or five Salaahs Qadhaa upon a person, and no other Qadhaa besides these, it is incorrect for one to perform current Salaah without completing these Qadhaa. He will perform these Qadhaa in sequence.
-If one has numerous Qadhaa Salaah (5 or more) outstanding, Qadhaa of the Salaah does not have to be done in order. One may for example, pray 3-4 Qadha of Zuhr one after the other at one time.
-Performing Qadha (make up) Salaah after the Fard of Fajr and Asr Salaah is permissible. In the case of Asr, performing Qadha Salaah is permissible till before the time the sun changes color approximately 10 mins before sunset. It is not permissible to pray Nafl after these two Salaah.
-When making Qadhaa, one will intend: “From all my Qadhaa Ẓuhr (or any other Salaah), this is the first Qadhaa.
-If a Salaah is missed on a journey which qualifies the person as a Musaafir (traveler) then the Qadhaa will also be made as Qasr (shortened).
Allocate a specific amount of time every day for Qadhaa Salaah. Increase this time on the weekends. Make a target of five every day and ten on the weekends.
One must keep a written record of all missed Salaah.
Similarly, any fasts of Ramadhan must also be made up (Qadhaa).
Lastly, make lots of Duʿā’ to Allāh Taʿāla to make it easy. In addition, it is very important that you make Tawbah (repentance) for making your Salaah Qadhaa. Just doing your Qaḍā’ is not sufficient for forgiveness. Tawbah is also essential. May Allah Ta’aala grant us the guidance to perform all the Salaah on time with its proper etiquettes and may He accept all our Ibaadah, Aameen
And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best.
Mufti Arshad Ali
Darul Iftaa, Jaamia Madinatul Uloom (Trinidad)