How should Qadha (make up) of Salaah be done?
1. For qaza, I know we can say SubhanAllah instead of fatihah in 3rd and 4th rakat but do we have to read a surah afterwards or can we go straight to ruku?
2. For qaza, is it true we must pray 4 rakat of witr if we pray it during daytime, where we still sit after the 3rd salah?
3. For qaza, is it true we must still say fatihah and surah in 3rd rakat for witr?
4. For sunnah prayers, is it true that you must read additional surah for all rakats?
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
Salaah is one of the pillars of Islam and is Fardh (a compulsory duty) on every Muslim, whether male or female, healthy or sick, rich or poor, young or old, traveler or resident upon becoming an adult (mature). According to Shariah, a person is regarded to be baligh (mature) from the time he/she experiences adulthood. If by the age of fifteen he/she does not experience adulthood, Shariah will consider such a person as baligh (mature).
It is a major sin to miss a Salaah in its proper time without a valid reason. The severity and warnings of deliberately missing a Salaah is mentioned in many Ahaadeeth (narrations):
* The name of that person who misses an obligatory Salaah deliberately will be written on the door of Jahannam along with those who will enter it. (Kanzul Ummaal)
* Whoever misses a Salaah, it is as if his family And wealth were destroyed. (Muslim)
Whether a Salaah is missed deliberately, forgetfully or with a valid reason e.g. severe illness, it has to be performed later. Performing it after the time of that particular Salaah has expired is called Qadhaa. The Qadhaa should be performed as soon as possible. To delay a Qadhaa unnecessarily is also incorrect.
If one missed any Fard Salah from the time one became baligh (mature or puberty), one must make Qadhaa (make up) for all missed Fard Salaahs. The Fard Salaahs are; 2 fard of Fajr, 4 of Zuhr, 4 of Asr, 3 of Maghrib, 4 of Isha. Also the 3 Witr after Isha if missed would also have to be made up.
As for your query,
1- Surah Faatiha should still be recited in the 3rd and 4th Rakaats of qadha for Fardh Salaahs. Another surah will not be recited after Surah Faatiha in the 3rd and 4th Rakaats of Fardh Salaahs.
2- Qadha for Witr will be the same 3 Rakaats, even if performed in the daytime.
3- In Qadha of Witr, Surah Faatiha and another Surah will be recited in the 3rd Rakaat, along with Dua Qunoot.
4- In Sunnah prayers, Surah Faatiha and another Surah will be recited in all the Rakaats (3rd and 4th also).
You may read to this book, Taleemul Haq on the basic laws and rulings of Salaah.
And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best.
Mufti Arshad Ali
Darul Iftaa, Jaamia Madinatul Uloom (Trinidad)