Hajj al Badal due to travel restrictions

Question

A person 55 to 60 years of age, hajj has become compulsory upon him this year as he has the means. However, due to the closure of the borders and the Saudi Government not allowing anyone out of the Kingdom to perform Hajj this year, the person is unable to perform Hajj. Therefore, is it permissible for him to appoint someone who resides in Makka (who already performed Hajj), to perform Hajj al Badal on his behalf.

Answer

بسم الله الرحـمن الرحيم

If Hajj becomes obligatory upon a person and he is unable to perform it due to a valid Shar’i reason, he may appoint someone to perform Hajj on his behalf (Hajj al Badal) and thus his Hajjah al Islam (obligatory Hajj) will be fulfilled.

The Jurists have stated that if a person is inflicted with a sickness or he is in captivity to the extent that his condition is perpetual and will prolong until he dies, then in such a case he may appoint someone to perform Hajj on his behalf. However, in the event that his sickness is cured or he is released from captivity and he is physically able to perform the Hajj, the Hajj that was performed on his behalf (Hajj al Badal) will not suffice for his Hajjah al Islam (obligatory Hajj).

Therefore, if the person in question is not inflicted with such a sickness that prevents him from undertaking the Hajj, he cannot appoint anyone to perform Hajj al Badal on his behalf.

As for the issue of the borders being closed and the Saudi Government’s restriction policy, it may be akin to captivity. However, this is regarded as a temporary impediment and not something that is perpetual (i.e. continue until death) and thus will not serve as valid excuse for Hajj al Badal.

Therefore, the individual should wait until the situation improves whereby, he can undertake the Hajj himself. Meanwhile, he should make Wasiyah (bequest) for Hajj al Badal on his behalf in the event he happens to pass away before he can actually undertake the Hajj.

Furthermore, you have stated in your query that the person appointed to perform the Hajj al Badal resides in Saudi. If the individual in question happens to die (before being able to perform the Hajj) leaving behind a Wasiyah instructing a Hajj al Badal on his behalf then the Jurists have stated that the person appointed for Hajj al Badal must undertake the Hajj from the city/country of the Musi (i.e. the bequeather, the one whom hajj is done on his behalf).[1]

If however, the Musi specified a place other than his city/country, it can be performed from that place, even if it is from Makkah. However, it is Makrooh (reprehensible) for the Musi who has ample means to do like this. Nevertheless, the Hajj al Badal will be valid.[2]

In the case where, the Wasiyah portion of the estate (a third of the net estate) is unable to cover the total Hajj expenses from the city/country of the Musi only then will it be permissible to appoint someone from Makkah or any place from which the stipulated wealth will suffice.

Similarly, if the Wasiyah portion of the estate is able to finance the Hajj al Badal from the city/country of the Musi except that the amount stipulated by the Musi to undertake the Hajj al Badal is insufficient, then someone from Makkah or elsewhere can be appointed.[3] 

And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best

Mufti Kaleem Muhammad

Darul Iftaa, Jaamia Madinatul Uloom

Marabella Trinidad

www.fatwa-tt.com /www.jaamia.net


[1] الفتاوى الهندية (1/ 259)

 فإن لم يبين مكانا يحج عنه من وطنه عند علمائنا، وهذا إذا كان ثلث ماله يكفي للحج من وطنه فأما إذا كان لا يكفي لذلك فإنه يحج عنه من حيث يمكن الإحجاج عنه بثلث ماله، كذا في المحيط

البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق ومنحة الخالق وتكملة الطوري (3/ 72)

فإن أحج عنه الوصي من غير وطنه مع ما يمكن الإحجاج من وطنه من ثلث ماله فإن الوصي يكون ضامنا ويكون الحج له ويحج عن الميت ثانيا إلا إذا كان المكان الذي أحج منه قريبا إلى وطنه من حيث يبلغ إليه ويرجع إلى الوطن قبل الليل فحينئذ لا يكون ضامنا مخالفا هذا كله إن بلغ ثلث ماله فإن لم يبلغ الإحجاج من بلده حج عنه من حيث يبلغ استحسانا

الفتاوى الهندية (1/ 259)

ولو أحج عنه من غير وطنه مع إمكان الإحجاج من وطنه من ثلث ماله فإن الوصي يكون ضامنا ويكون الحج له ويحج عن الميت ثانيا إلا إذا كان المكان الذي أحج منه قريبا إلى وطنه من حيث يبلغ إليه ويرجع إلى وطنه قبل الليل فحينئذ لا يكون ضامنا ولو أحج عنه من موضع وفضل عنه من ثلث ماله وتبين أنه كان يبلغ أبعد منه؛ فإن الوصي يكون ضامنا ويحج عنه من حيث يبلغ إلا إذا كان الفضل يسيرا من زاد وكسوة فلا يكون مخالفا ويرد الفضل على الورثة، كذا في الظهيرية

[2] الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (2/ 605)

قلت: والظاهر أنه يجب عليه أن يوصي بما يبلغ من بلده إن كان في الثلث سعة، فلو أوصى بما دون ذلك أو عين مكانا دون بلده يأثم لما علمت أن الواجب عليه الحج من بلد يسكنه

الفتاوى الهندية (1/ 259)

وإن أوصى أن يحج عنه من موضع، كذا من غير بلده؛ يحج عنه من ثلث ماله من ذلك الموضع الذي بين، قرب من مكة أو بعد عنها وما فضل في يد الحاج عن الميت بعد النفقة في ذهابه ورجوعه فإنه يرده على الورثة لا يسعه أن يأخذ شيئا مما فضل هكذا في البدائع

[3] ارشاد الساري الى مناسك ملا علي القاري مع المسلك المتقسط في المنسك المتوسط للسندي ص 483