Divorces issued in anger.

Question:

ASAK

I just need to ask one question. I was married and have 3 children. My and my wife used to get in a lot of arguments she called the police on me and in anger I said to her I give you talaq then next day she said sorry to me and we got back together. Then at one point after couple of year we got into arguments again and in anger I said I give you talaq this was second time and we got back together then after couple of year we got into arguments and I said to her in anger I give you talaq this was 3rd time. I just want to know if I can remarry her or not

Wasalam

Answer

بسم الله الرحـمن الرحيم

Based on what has been stated in the query, we conclude that three divorces (Talaaq) have pronounced and have occurred. Consequently, the marriage has been terminated (upon the third pronouncement) and thus, it is impermissible for the ex-husband to re-marry his irrevocably divorced wife (whether within, or after her iddah period). Furthermore, this condition (irrevocable impermissibility) will be perpetuated until the ex-wife (any time after the completion of her iddah period) marries another man, consummates the marriage with him and thereafter, if the man (second husband) happens to divorce her or he happens to die, upon the completion of her Iddah, only then will she be able to re-marry her first husband.[1]

[1] This process is termed Halalah i.e. where the ex-wife naturally becomes Halal (lawful in marriage) for her first ex-husband. Nb: All forms of organized and arranged Halalah are totally prohibited (Haraam)

Clarification

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: There are three things which, whether undertaken seriously or in jest, are treated as serious: Marriage, divorce and Raj’ah (taking back one’s wife after a revocable divorce) [al-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood and Ibn Maja][1]

As for being angry, divorce given in the state of anger is also valid i.e.it occurs. If not in all cases, most of the cases in which a man pronounces divorce is when he’s angry. Seldomly will a man say; “honey I divorce you” or he looks at his wife with love and says “I divorce you”. The Jurists have stated that if a person pronounces divorce in the state of anger (or extreme anger), except that he is mentally sound and he is fully aware of what he is saying and perusing then there is no doubt that divorce occurs. We are not denying that you were angry when you issued the first divorce however, based on what you have stated, you were fully aware of your actions and statements. The only thing you regretted was divorcing your wife while she’s still in her menses. In addition, you have stated that if your wife had accepted your offer to resign from her job, you wouldn’t have divorced her. This indicates clearly that you were in your full senses and fully aware of your statements and its repercussions.[2]

The only concession mentioned by the Jurists is that of a person who became so extremely angry to the extent that he was unaware of what he was saying i.e to the extent of insanity, in his case divorce will not occur. This obviously, is not your case as you knew exactly what you did and said then, not only that, you are also able to vividly recollect the incident in details.

As for the Hadith you have stated, we are unaware of any Hadith with such wording. We, however, are aware of the following Hadith:

عن عائشة رضي الله عنها أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال:لَا طَلَاقَ وَلَا عَتَاقَ فِي إِغْلَاقٍ رواه أحمد في مسنده و ابن ماجه

Translation: Aisha r.a. narrated that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said There is no Talaq (occurrence of divorce) and Ataaq (setting free a slave) in (the state of) Iglaaq.

The linguistic meaning of Iglaaq is to conceal/lock/cover i.e. the covering of one’s sanity and mental stability. The Jurists differ with regards to its implication in the Hadith. The following interpretations were given; the state of duress, anger, intoxication, madness etc.[3] Even if the word Iglaaq in the Hadith refers to anger, it is within the parameters mentioned by the Jurists i.e. anger to the extent of insanity and madness.

And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best

Mufti Kaleem Muhammad

Darul Iftaa, Jaamia Madinatul Uloom

Marabella Trinidad


[1] عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ثَلاَثٌ جِدُّهُنَّ جِدٌّ وَهَزْلُهُنَّ جِدٌّ النِّكَاحُ وَالطَّلاَقُ وَالرَّجْعَةُ

[2] الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3/ 244)

مطلب في طلاق المدهوش وقال في الخيرية: غلط من فسره هنا بالتحير، إذ لا يلزم من التحير وهو التردد في الأمر ذهاب العقل. وسئل نظما فيمن طلق زوجته ثلاثا في مجلس القاضي وهو مغتاظ مدهوش، أجاب نظما أيضا بأن الدهش من أقسام الجنون فلا يقع، وإذا كان يعتاده بأن عرف منه الدهش مرة يصدق بلا برهان. اهـ. قلت: وللحافظ ابن القيم الحنبلي رسالة في طلاق الغضبان قال فيها: إنه على ثلاثة أقسام: أحدها أن يحصل له مبادئ الغضب بحيث لا يتغير عقله ويعلم ما يقول ويقصده، وهذا لا إشكال فيه. والثاني أن يبلغ النهاية فلا يعلم ما يقول ولا يريده، فهذا لا ريب أنه لا ينفذ شيء من أقواله.

[3] شرح مختصر الطحاوي للجصاص (5/ 8)

قال أبو بكر: أما قوله عليه الصلاة والسلام: “لا طلاق في إغلاق”: فلا دلالة فيه على حكم طلاق المكره؛ لأن المكره غير مغلق عليه، وإنما المعني فيه المجنون؛ لأنه مغلق عليه في التصرف من سائر الوجوه

التجريد للقدوري (10/ 4923)

 نقول: من ذلك غلق غلاقًا فهو غلق. والخبر الثابت (لا طلاق ولا عتاق في غلاق: أي لا يطلق الرجل المحب للمرأة ولا يعتق المولى المحب، لأن نفسه تتبعها ولا يقدر عليها، وهذا معنى قوله (لا تدري لعل الله يحدث بعد ذلك أمرًا) فإن صح اللفظ الآخر وهو لا طلاق في إغلاق فهو من هذا أيضًا، لأنه يريد أن غيره أدخله في هذا، فتقول: أغلقه غيره إغلاقًا فهو مغلق، والعرب تجعل العاشق مرة فاعلًا ومرة مفعو