My Ramadhan guide (1439/2018)

Jaamia Madinatul Uloom & Masjidul Huda (Marabella, Trinidad)

My Ramadhan guide   (1439/2018)

 

Virtues of Ramadhan

Ramadan is the month in which the Qur’an was revealed as Guidance for Mankind, and as clear signs that show the right way and distinguish between right and wrong. So those of you who witness the month must fast in it.  {Surah Al-Baqarah;  verse: 185}

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Whoever fasts Ramadan with faith and seeks reward from Allah only, all his past sins will be forgiven. Whoever prays in the nights of Ramadan with faith and seeks reward from Allah only, all his past sins will be forgiven. And whoever spends Lailat-ul-Qadr in worship with faith and seeks reward from Allah only, all his past sins will be forgiven.   {Al Bukhari)

Intention for Keeping the Fast

“I intend to fast for the pleasure of Allah Ta’aala”

NB:  It is sufficient to make intention from the heart.

Dua at the time of breaking Fast

Allahumma laka sumtu wa ‘ala rizqika aftartu.

O Allah! I fasted for You and break my fast with Your sustenance

 

One hundred rulings pertaining to Fasting and Ramadhan

Acts which Do Not Invalidate the Fast

  1. Injections /vaccinations / IV Drips.
  2. Applying oil / henna /dye / to the hair.
  3. Using eye-drops or kohl /surma.
  4. Applying perfume or inhaling it.
  5. Taking a shower, even for refreshment.
  6. Using Miswak. NB- Swallowing the remaining taste of the natural Miswak will not break your fast; however, it would be best to spit it out.
  7. Swallowing of one’s own saliva.
  8. Vomiting unintentionally, regardless of the amount.
  9. Vomiting intentionally less than a mouth full.
  10. Swallowing back vomit
  11. Unintended entrance of smoke/dust particles into the throat.
  12. Having a wet dream during the day.
  13. Delaying the compulsory ghusl until after the break of dawn.
  14. Applying medicine/oil/drops in the ear (unless the eardrum is perforated) NB- Modern day medical research shows that there is no direct passage from the ear to the throat, unless there is a hole in the eardrum.
  15. Donating blood / taking a blood test.
  16. (Should be avoided if it leads to weakness).
  17. Kissing without the exchange of saliva. (Should be avoided for one who cannot control his desires).
  18. Touching/embracing /hugging one’s spouse. (Should be avoided for one who cannot control his desires).
  19. Waking up after the break of dawn, hence not being able to partake of Suhoor.
  20. Applying Vicks to the nose.
  21. Usage of the normal Vicks inhaler.
  22. Pain/Nicotine/Hormone patches.
  23. Eating /drinking /sexual relations, forgetting that one is fasting. One must stop / withdraw as soon as he remembers.
  24. Emission of seminal fluids without physical contact – (i.e. without touching /caressing etc.)
  25. Rinsing the mouth /nose, provided that water does not enter the throat.
  26. Emission of pre-seminal fluid (Mazi) and Wadiy – a thick sticky substance that comes out after urination.
  27. Firm intention to break one’s fast during the day without actually eating or drinking.
  28. Bleeding gums even though it may slip down the throat, provided that the blood swallowed is less in proportion to the saliva
  29. Breastfeeding / Expressing milk.
  30. Blood discharged by a pregnant woman.
  31. Vaginal discharge other than menstrual period.
  32. Swimming (with the condition that water does not enter the throat, but should be avoided).
  33. Forgetting to make intention for fasting before the break of dawn. NB – One’s fast is still intact if he makes intention any time before half of the day has passed, provided that he did not perform an act that will nullify his fast since the break of dawn.
  34. Usage of Tampon/ Contraceptive coils.
  35. Tablets/Pills placed under the tongue to treat angina or other medical cases, with the condition that it does not enter the throat.
  36. Becoming unconscious.
  37. Dialysis
  38. Dental fillings/ tooth extractions/ cleaning, as long as one does not swallow any particles.(Should avoided)
  39. Cervical smear test /Pap smear.
  40. Internal Ultrasound Examination. NB – Modern medical research proves that there is no direct passage between the uterus and the intestine.
  41. Inhaling fumes from paint/glue/gasoline/chemicals/ substances which does not have a perceptible body.
  42. Infusion of medicine/liquids into urethra.
  43. Inserting dye into the bloodstream for medical needs.
  44. Acupuncture
  45. External usage of creams/lotions/ointments.
  46. External usage of Limacol /Alcolado / Methylated spirit /rubbing alcohol etc.
  47. Mosquito/fly entering the throat.

Acts which are Makrooh (disliked) but Do Not Invalidate the Fast

  1. Tasting with the tongue only, without the substance being swallowed. (i.e. must be spitted out)
  2. Using toothpaste/tooth power (with the condition that the substance is not swallowed).
  3. Flavoured Miswaks provided that the flavour or substance is not swallowed.(Should be avoided)
  4. Rinsing using a mouthwash, provided that nothing enters the throat.
  5. Gargling, provided that water doesn’t enter the throat. NB – in case if a compulsory bath, rinsing will suffice
  6. Chewing a piece of cloth/thread/plastic etc. that is tasteless, void of flavour and inedible, as long as the item is not swallowed.
  7. Wearing lip balm, lipstick, provided that it is not swallowed.

NB-The above mentioned are categorized “Disliked” as these action can lead to the nullification of one’s fast if any substance slips down the throat, even if this occurs accidently or unintentionally.

  1. Nutritional injections/ Supplements e.g. Vitamin B12

 

Acts that nullify the fast and necessitate Qadha Only

Qadha is to keep a single fast in place of the one that was nullified.

  1. Smoking cigarettes /E-Cigarettes, vaping etc.
  2. Water slipping down the throat while performing Wudhu or Ghusl, even if not done deliberately.
  3. Usage of enema/insertion of liquids/gels etc. into the anal passage.
  4. Deliberately vomiting a mouthful or more.
  5. Deliberately swallowing one’s vomit, even a little, regardless if it came out unintentionally or not.
  6. Applying medicine to one’s mouth /nose and then the substance enters the throat.
  7. Usage of mist /steam /Ventolin inhaler /nebulizer.
  8. Deliberately and purposely inhaling incense/Loban smoke or any matter that has a perceptible body.
  9. Ejaculation due to physical contact – (e.g. touching/ kissing/caressing and fondling).
  10. Masturbation NB-This is a very sinful act.
  11. Eating/drinking on the assumption that it is still night then realizing that dawn has already broken.
  12. Eating mistakenly, assuming that the sun has already set, while in reality it did not.
  13. Swallowing any foreign object even if it is smaller than a split pea (edible or not).
  14. Swallowing particles stuck between the teeth the size of a split pea or larger.
  15. Inhaling snuff (tobacco powder) into the nostrils.
  16. A woman commencing her menstrual cycle.

Acts that necessitate Qadha and Kaffarah

Kaffarah is a penalty of fasting sixty consecutive days.

  1. Eating/drinking while one is aware that he is fasting.
  2. Intercourse (just mere penetration, even if emission of fluids did not occur). Kaffarah will be Wajib upon both husband and wife.

 

Rulings Relating to Fidya

  1. If a person is suffering from a chronic disease which prevents him from fasting, then he will have to give Fidya for each day’s fast.
  2. If a person who gave Fidya (because of a chronic disease which prevented him from fasting), recovers and is able to fast, then such a person must do Qadha for all missed fasts, as Fidya will no longer suffice.
  3. If a person has a sickness that prevents him from fasting and he hopes to recover, then he is permitted to delay his fast, and make Qadha after recovery.
  4. An elderly person, who has lost his strength and is getting weaker every day, will have to give Fidya for each day’s fast.
  5. A person who was unable to complete his previous Qadha fasts before Ramadhan commences, does not have to pay Fidya. However, Qadha for the previous missed fast will still be Wajib on him.  NB: It is obligatory upon each and every individual to observe Qadha of all missed fast in his/her lifetime from the time of Bulugh (maturity). Only if a person is not able to fast anymore, (because of a chronic disease or old age) he should give Fidya for each missed fast.

Other Rulings Relating to Fasting

  1. Those exempted from fasting should avoid eating/drinking in the presence of those fasting
  2. A menstruating woman who sees blood longer than her usual habit should refrain from fasting, as this may be regarded as part of her menstrual cycle.
  3. A pregnant /nursing woman who fears harm to herself or her baby is excused from fasting. However if there is no fear then she must fast.
  4. A woman experiencing her menstrual cycle/post-natal bleeding is NOT allowed to fast until she attains purity.
  5. If a menstruating woman stops bleeding before her usual habit then she should fast, as it is a possibility that her habit changed.
  6. If a woman in her menses becomes pure anytime during the day, she must refrain from eating / drinking etc. for the rest of the day until sunset.
  7. If a woman experiences the signs and symptoms of her menstrual cycle, but she has not seen any blood, her fast will remain intact.
  8. Blood discharged after ten days of menstrual cycle will be considered abnormal bleeding; hence it will be compulsory for her to observe the fast.
  9. It is permissible for a woman to use medicine in order to delay her menstrual cycle. However, she should accept the decree of Allah Ta’ala by not taking any medication.
  10. A woman does not need to seek permission from her husband to fast in the month of Ramadhan. If the husband does not consent, she still has to fast.
  11. If a person undertakes a journey in Ramadhan for leisure/entertainment, then he still has the choice of keeping the fast or not. NB- Ramadhan is precious and should be spent in a beneficial manner.
  12. A traveller who is not fasting, returns to his hometown anytime during the day, he must refrain from the invalidators of fast until sunset.
  13. A traveller who is not fasting, intends (during the day) temporary residence (for at least 15 days), then he must refrain from the invalidators of fast until sunset.
  14. If a person feels extreme hunger or thirst, and fears that he may die if he continues fasting, he is allowed to break fast and do Qadha for that day.
  15. A traveller (by definition of Sharia), has the choice to keep the fast or not, even though the journey may not be difficult, however it is better to fast.
  16. A sick person, whose illness may worsen due to fasting or it may lead to death, is also excused.
  17. Students writing/studying/preparing for exams are NOT excused from fasting.
  18. If a person decides to undertake a journey, and is departing after the break of dawn, then he must fast.
  19. An individual whose job is laborious and demands physical strength is NOT absolved from fasting; rather he should make special arrangements to facilitate the Holy Month of Ramadhan.
  20. Giving Iftaar to a fasting person does not absolve one from keeping the fast.
  21. If a person is eating and hears the Adhan for Fajr or is informed that the break of dawn has entered then he MUST spit out whatever is in his mouth.
  22. A person who is working in such an environment where he is in constant contact with dust particles/ smoke/cement dust/sawdust /sand etc. should wear a dust mask as a precautionary measure.

For further clarification and inquiries, please contact:

Darul Ifta Jaamia Madinatul Uloom

(Department of Islamic Jurisprudence for Guidance in Islamic law, Personal, Social and Business related matters.)

Website: www.fatwa-tt.com / www.jaamia.net

Email: jmudarulifta@gmail.com             Phone: 306-9093, 397-7667, 368-0010

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Significance of Sehri: Anas (Radhiallaahu Anhu) reported: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “Partake of Suhoor (predawn meal), for surely, there is blessings in Suhur.”(al-Bukhari)

Sehri (partaking of food shortly before dawn) is a Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ, even if one takes a small quantity of food. This meal is blessed and helps maintain one’s energy and vitality during Saum. Also at the time of Sehri, Duas are accepted and one gets the opportunity to remember Allah, and lift their hands to Him in prayer.

Significance of Iftaar: Sahl (Radhiallaahu Anhu) narrates that the holy Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “The people will continue experiencing blessings so long as they hasten in breaking their fast. (Al Bukhari)

The breaking of the fast (Iftaar) should not be delayed. The Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ was to break fast with dates.

Taraweeh Salaah:

Abu Huraira (radhiallahu anhu) narrates that the Prophet ﷺ said, “Whoever stands up for (Taraweeh) in Ramadhan with faith and expecting reward, his past sins are forgiven. (al-Bukhari)

Taraweeh Salaah is Sunnah Muakkadah (an emphasised Sunnah). It should be performed in congregation (with Jama’ah) and one should make an effort to listen to the entire Quran in the Taraweeh.

One who discards Tawaweeh deliberately and repeatedly becomes sinful. The unanimous ruling of all the madhaahib (schools of jurisprudence) is that Taraweeh consists of 20 Rak’aats. Congregational Taraweeh in Ramadhan was established by Rasulullah ﷺ himself. Thereafter, Sayyiduna ‘Umar (radhiallahu anhu) unified the Ummah upon 20 rakaats of Taraweeh. His decision to unify the Taraweeh behind one Imam was met with approval and consensus of all the Sahaabah (radhiallahu anhum) and Tabi’een of that era, without record of any objection. For the centuries that followed thereafter, this remained the uninterrupted practice of the entire Ummah.

The Prophet of Allah ﷺ commanded us “Hold on firmly to my Sunnah and that of the rightly guided Khulafaa. (i.e Abu Bakr,  Umar, Uthman and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them) (Abu Dawood)
Moreover, the command of our beloved Nabi ﷺ specifically about the Taraweeh in Ramdhan is to pray with the Imam until the end! The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘Indeed, whoever stands (praying) with the Imam until he finished, then it is recorded for him as having spent a whole night in prayer. (Abu Dawood).

Sadaqatul Fitr

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ prescribed Sadaqatul Fitr as a purification from vain and obscene talk for that one who fasted, and as a provision for the poor. If anyone pays it before the Eid prayer, it will be an accepted Sadaqah. If anyone pays it after the Eid prayer, that will be a Sadaqah like any other Sadaqah. [Abu Dawood #1609]

Sadaqatul-Fitr is compulsory on adult males and females, who have in their possession assets to the value of Nisaab The father is responsible to discharge Sadaqatul-Fitr on behalf of his minor children. It can be discharged from the start of Ramadhan and must be given before Eid, and be given to needy Muslims who are eligible to accept Zakah.

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