Fiqh Class-Second Point of Salaah (Ruku’)

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Weekly Fiqh classes on various important subjects are conducted by Mufti Kaleem. These are beneficial and practical summaries of the classes.

Second Point of Salaah

For first point see http://fatwa-tt.com/2018/02/20/fiqh-class-salaah

(Ruku’)

  1. Say Takbeer before going into Ruku’
  2. Do not raise the hands when saying Takbeer.

Question: In many Ahaadith, it is mentioned that the Prophet ﷺ raised his hands before going into Ruku’. Therefore why don’t the Hanafi followers raise their hands?

Answer: There are many Ahaadith which describes the Salah Prophet ﷺ, in details and despite that there is no mention of the Prophet ﷺ raising the hands before Ruku’.[1] There are also Ahaadith where some of the companions of the Prophet ﷺ clearly stated that the Prophet ﷺ didn’t raise his hands before going Ruku’.[2] There are also many Ahaadith which states that the Prophet ﷺ used to raise his hands before going into Ruku’. The Hanafi Jurists are of the opinion that the stronger view is that the hands should not be raised except at the beginning of the Salah.

Imam Tirmidhi reports in his Sunnan that Abdullah bin Masood [ra] said: Shall I not perform Salah (demonstrating) to you the Salah of the Prophet ﷺ? [Alqamah mentions] that he [Abdullah bin Masood] preformed Salah and did not raise his hands except at the first instance [at the time of commencing]. Hadith #257

Imam Tirmidhi graded the Hadith as Hasan. Thereafter he mentions that this is the view [not raising the hands] of some of the companions of the Prophet ﷺ and the [some of the] Ta’bieen and this is the view of Sufyaan al Thawri and the People of Kufah.

Ibn Rushd [ra], famous Maliki Jurist [595 هـ] mentions that the view of not raising the hands [before Ruku] is the view of the people of Kufah and all its Jurists.[3] Thereafter, he mentions that this is also the madhab of Imam Malik [ra] as it was the practice of the People of Madina.[4]

Imam Abu Dawood [ra] records in his Sunan that; Maymun al-Makki [ra] said: that he saw Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr r.a [companion of the Prophet ﷺ] performing Salah. He pointed with his hands, he raised his hands when he stood up, when he bowed and when he prostrated, and when he got up after prostration, he raised his hands. Then I [Maymun al-Makki] went to Ibn Abbas [ra] and said to him I saw Ibn al-Zubayr [r.a.] performing Salah in a way that I never saw anyone praying. I then told him about the pointing with his hands (raising his hands). He said: If you like to see the prayer of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) follower the prayer as offered by Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr. [Hadith # 739]

Maymoon al Makki [r.a] objected to the Salah of Abdullah bin al Zubair [r.a.], in which he raised his hands other than for the Takbeer Tahrima (at the beginning). Maymoon al Makki, who lived in Makkah regarded the Salah performed by Ibn al Zubair [by raising the hands] as strange practice to the People of Makkah, so much so that he said that he hasn’t seen anyone [from the people of Makkah] performing Salah in that manner [i.e. by raising the hands].

Thus is seems apparent that the view of not raising the hands was the practice of majority of the Muslim world [i.e. People of Kufa, People of Medina and the People of Makkah], even at the time of the Sahabah and the Tab’een.

Furthermore, many of those companions of the Prophet ﷺ who have reported the action of raising the hands, it has also been reported that they themselves on did not raise their hands in Salah [except at the beginning].[5] This indicates that raising the hands was abrogated as is the view of most Hanafi Jurists or that both raising the hands and not raising the hands are correct.

In conclusion, due to the numerous number of Ahaadith supporting the action raising the hands, it cannot be negated. However, at the same time due not raising the hands cannot be rejected nor ascribed as being contrary to the Sunnah. The two views are correct however, according to the Hanafi Madhab, not to raise the hands (except at the beginning of the Salah) is more virtuous as it is regarded as being closer to the Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ.  This is the case due to the following reasons;

  1. The numerous number of Ahaadith that describe the Salah of the Prophet ﷺ but didn’t make any mention of the ‘raising of the hands’.
  2. Those Ahaadith which explicitly negate the raising of the hands.
  • It was the practice of most of the Muslim World during the blessed generations [i.e of the Sahabah, Tabieen and Tabu’ Tabeen and those who came afterwards].
  1. Many of those companions of the Prophet ﷺ who reported the ‘raising of the hands’, they themselves did not adhere to the practice. و الله تعالى أعلم
  2. The fingers should be spaced out grasping the knees.
  3. The knees should not be bent forward.
  4. The back should be straight and not humped/arched
  5. The head should be in line with the back, it should not be raised higher nor dipped lower.
  6. If the gaze is fixed at the toes, it helps in the levelling of the head.
  7. The arms should be spaced and separated from the body and not tucked into the sides.
  8. The Tasbeeh for Ruku’ should be said three times or more (i.e. in odd numbers).
  9. It is allowed to make dua in Ruku’ in optional Salah (Nafl).

NB: All Duas made in Salah must be made in the Arabic language and must not resemble the request one would make to a human being.

  1. The Tasbeeh should not be recited in haste.
  2. If the imam raises his head from Ruku’ before the Muqtadi can finish his Tasbihaat then he should leave his Tasbihaat and follow the Imam.
  3. It is not permissible for a Muqtadi to raise his head from Ruku’ before the Imam raises his head. If the Muqtadi did as such, then he must return to the Ruku’ position and wait for the imam. This however, will not be regarded as two Ruku’.
  4. If a person catches the Imam in Ruku’ he is considered to have caught the Rakah. NB: what is regarded is the participation in the Ruku of the Imam, any portion of it i.e. whatever is considered as Ruku. Even though the Imam may be raising from the “proper ruku’ posture towards the standing posture.
  5. If the Muqtadi manages to catch the imam in any part of his Ruku’, then that will suffice.
  6. If a Muqtaqi goes for Ruku’ before the imam then he should wait in that position until the Imam goes and completes his Ruku’. NB: to precede the Imam is Makrooh
  7. If a person is performing Salah in a sitting posture then he should ensure that the Imam has gone into Ruku’ or Sajdah before making gesture.

 

 

[1]  Reference 1

[2] Reference 2

[3] بداية المجتهد ونهاية المقتصد (1/ 142)

وَأَمَّا اخْتِلَافُهُمْ فِي الْمَوَاضِعِ الَّتِي تُرْفَعُ فِيهَا فَذَهَبَ أَهْلُ الْكُوفَةِ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ وَسُفْيَانُ الثَّوْرِيُّ وَسَائِرُ فُقَهَائِهِمْ إِلَى أَنَّهُ لَا يَرْفَعُ الْمُصَلِّي يَدَيْهِ إِلَّا عِنْدَ تَكْبِيرَةِ الْإِحْرَامِ فَقَطْ، وَهِيَ رِوَايَةُ ابْنِ الْقَاسِمِ عَنْ مَالِكٍ

 

[4] بداية المجتهد ونهاية المقتصد (1/ 143)

فَمِنْهُمْ مَنِ اقْتَصَرَ بِهِ عَلَى الْإِحْرَامِ فَقَطْ تَرْجِيحًا لِحَدِيثِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، وَحَدِيثِ الْبَرَاءِ بْنِ عَازِبٍ وَهُوَ مَذْهَبُ مَالِكٍ لِمُوَافَقَةِ الْعَمَلِ بِهِ

[5] راجع بذل المجهود