Do animals have souls and what happens to them after death?

Question:

Assalamu Alaikum What happens to dogs when they die? Do they have souls and if so what happens to it after they die? I heard that they’re to be resurrected and justice is done unto them and thereafter they turn to dust. Please clarify. Jazakallah

Answer:

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

All animals, including dogs have souls and would be resurrected on the Day of Judgement. Justice would be given to those animals which were oppressed by other animals, in that they would be allowed to take revenge against their oppressors. Thereafter, they all would be turned into dust.

Evidences indicting that Animals have souls:

  • Abdullah bin Umar (ra) said;

عن ابن عمر أنه مر بفتيان من قريش قد نصبوا طيرًا وهم يرمونه، وقد جعلوا لصاحب الطير كل خاطئة من نبلهم، فلما رأوا ابن عمر تفرقوا فقال ابن عمر‏:‏ من فعل هذا‏؟‏ لعن الله من فعل هذا، إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لعن من اتخذ شيئًا فيه روح غرضًا

I happened to pass by some youngsters of the Quraish who had tied a bird at which they have been shooting arrows. Every arrow that they missed came into the possession of the owner of the bird. No sooner had they seen Ibn ‘Umar, they dispersed. Thereupon, Ibn ‘Umar said: “Who has done this? May Allah curse him who has done so. Verily, the Messenger of Allah has cursed anyone who makes a thing that has a soul the target (of one’s marksmanship) [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

  • Abdullah bin Abbas said;

عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال‏:‏ سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول‏:‏ ‏”‏كل مصور في النار يجعل له بكل صورة صورها نفس فيعذبه في جهنم‏”‏ قال ابن عباس‏:‏ فإن كنت لابد فاعلا، فاصنع الشجر وما لا ورح فيه

I heard the Messenger of Allah saying, “Every picture-maker will go to Hell, and for every picture he has made, there will be appointed one who will chastise him in the Hell. Ibn ‘Abbas said: If you have to do it, draw pictures of trees and that which does not have a soul. [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

The resurrection of Animals;

  • Allah ﷻ mentions in the Noble Quran

وما من دابة في الأرض ولا طائر يطير بجناحيه إلا أمم أمثالكم ما فرطنا في الكتاب من شيء ثم إلى ربهم يحشرون

There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, except that they are nations like you. Nothing have we omitted from the Book. Then unto their Lord they will be gathered (after resurrection). [Al-Anaam Ayah 38]

  • Allah ﷻ mentions in the Noble Quran

وإذا الوحوش حشرت

And when the wild beasts shall be gathered together (resurrected) [At-Takweer Ayah 5]

 

The establishment of justice amongst the Animals;

  • Abu Hurairah (ra) narrated that the Messenger of Allah ﷺsaid:

‏ لَتُؤَدَّنَّ الْحُقُوقُ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا حَتَّى يُقَادَ لِلشَّاةِ الْجَلْحَاءِ مِنَ الشَّاةِ الْقَرْنَاءِ

Rights will be given to their due, such that the hornless sheep would get its claim from the horned sheep. [At-Tirmidhi]

  • Abu Dharr (ra) narrated that;

أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان جالسا وشاتان تعتلفان فنطحت إحداهما الأخرى فأجهضتها قال: فضحك رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فقيل له ما يضحكك يا رسول الله؟ قال عجبت لها، والذي نفسي بيده، ليقادن لها يوم القيامة

The Messenger of Allaah was sitting, and two sheep locked horns with each other, until one of them butted and defeated the other. The Messenger of Allaah smiled and someone asked him, “Why are you smiling, O Messenger of Allaah? He said, It is amazing! By the One in Whose hand is my soul, their score will be settled on the Day of Resurrection.[1] [Imam Ahmad]

  • Abu Hurairah (ra) mentions;

يحشر الخلق كلهم يوم القيامة البهائم، والدواب، والطير، وكل شيء فيبلغ من عدل الله أن يأخذ للجماء من القرناء، ثم يقول كوني ترابا فذلك يقول الكافر يا ليتني كنت ترابا

The entire creation would be resurrected on the Day of Judgement, the animals, wild beasts and birds. All would be brought to justice, those animals without horns, who were oppressed would take revenge against its opponents, then Allah would say: become dust! Upon this the disbeliever would say; Oh, I wish that I were dust! [Al-Mustadrak][2]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mufti Kaleem Muhammad

Darul Iftaa, Jaamia Madinatul Uloom

Trinidad, West Indies

www.fatwa-tt.com /www.jaamia.net

[1] مسند أحمد ط الرسالة (35/ 403)

(3) حديث حسن

[2] المستدرك على الصحيحين للحاكم (2/ 345)

«جعفر الجذري هذا هو ابن برقان، قد احتج به مسلم وهو صحيح على شرطه ولم يخرجاه»

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