Explanation of Khula’

Question:

As Salaamu Alaikum! Can you explain all aspects of Khulla,with regards to its do’s and don’t’s? JazaakAllaah khair,Aameen

 

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

According to the pristine teachings of Shari’ah, a woman cannot come out of the marriage or divorce her husband on her own accord and will, rather divorce and ending the marriage is the exclusive right of the husband.

However, Islam caters for the rights of both the husband and the wife. Islam has provided a facility to the wife to save herself from the possible oppression of the husband. If it is not possible to bring about any conciliation between husband and wife, after all possible means to rectify the marriage were done and the husband refuses to divorce her, it is permissible for the wife to give some money or her mahr (dowry) to her husband to enter into and agreement of Khula. Khula is an agreement between the husband and wife to dissolve the contract of marriage in lieu of the compensation paid by the wife.[1] Khula can also be initiated by the husband.

Allah states in the Quran:

“…It is not lawful for husbands to take anything back which they have given them except when both parties fear that they may not be able to follow the limits set by Allah; then if you fear that they both will not be able to keep the limits of Allah, there is no blame if, by mutual agreement the wife compensates the husband to obtain divorce. These are the limits set by Allah; do not transgress them, and those who transgress the limits of Allah are the wrongdoers.” (Surah Al Baqara: 229)

From the above ayah it is clear that Khula can only be carried out with the consent and agreement of both the husband and wife. The wife does not have the jurisdiction to enforce Khula without the consent of her husband.

The Fuqaha (jurists) have written that if the husband oppresses the wife and makes her life difficult, and there was no fault on her path, then due to this she is forced to make Khula he should not take anything from her in compensation.  If the woman is disobedient and the fault lies with her then the couple may come to an amicable agreement with regards to Khula where she returns to him her Mahr (dowry) or some other amount. He may also, if he wishes, ask for her to return the things which he had gifted her with. However, he should not take any compensation in excess of the mahr (dowry) that he had given. He should grant Khula in exchange for the mahr alone, and not more than that. If he takes more than the mahr, it will not be a good thing, however it will be permissible.[2]

In answer to her request to end the marriage, the husband says: “I let you go.” In saying so, one irrevocable divorce (Talaaq baain) takes place. The man then does not have the right to keep her back or to revoke his divorce.[3] After Khula takes place, whatever the man was owing to his wife or whatever the wife was owing to her husband will be forgiven. If the man still had a balance of the dowry to pay, it will be forgiven. Despite this, the man will have to feed, clothe and provide shelter to her until the end of her ‘iddah. However, if the woman had said that she will not even take advantage of these benefits during her ‘iddah, then they will also be forgiven.[4]

NB: If the above-mentioned case, if the word divorce was used instead of Khula, e.g. she says: “Divorce me in exchange for $1000”, this will not be Khula. If the man grants a divorce in exchange for that money, one irrevocable divorce (Talaaq baain) will take place. In such a case, no rights or debts will be forgiven – neither those that the man has to fulfil nor those that the woman has to fulfil. If the man had not paid the full dowry as yet, it will not be forgiven and the woman can claim it. Furthermore, the woman will have to pay the $1000.

In such a case where the woman did not want Khula, rather the man forced her and compelled her to make Khula, divorce will take place but it will not be wâjib (compulsory) on the woman to give any monetary compensation. If the man had an outstanding amount of mahr (dowry) to pay, this will also not be forgiven (he will have to pay it to her).[5]

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mufti Arshad Ali

Darul Iftaa, Jaamia Madinatul Uloom (Trinidad)

www.fatwa-tt.com /www.jaamia.net

 

[1] الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3/ 441)

وَفِي الْقُهُسْتَانِيِّ عَنْ شَرْحِ الطَّحَاوِيِّ: السُّنَّةُ إذَا وَقَعَ بَيْنَ الزَّوْجَيْنِ اخْتِلَافٌ أَنْ يَجْتَمِعَ أَهْلُهُمَا لِيُصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَصْطَلِحَا جَازَ الطَّلَاقُ وَالْخُلْعُ. اهـ. ط، وَهَذَا هُوَ الْحُكْمُ الْمَذْكُورُ فِي الْآيَةِ،

[2] الفتاوى الهندية – ط. دار الفكر (1/ 488)

إذَا تَشَاقَّ الزَّوْجَانِ وَخَافَا أَنْ لَا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَلَا بَأْسَ بِأَنْ تَفْتَدِيَ نَفْسَهَا منه بِمَالٍ يَخْلَعُهَا بِهِ فإذا فَعَلَا ذلك وَقَعَتْ تَطْلِيقَةٌ بَائِنَةٌ وَلَزِمَهَا الْمَالُ كَذَا في الْهِدَايَةِ إنْ كان النُّشُوزُ من قِبَلِ الزَّوْجِ فَلَا يَحِلُّ له أَخْذُ شَيْءٍ من الْعِوَضِ على الْخُلْعِ وَهَذَا حُكْمُ الدِّيَانَةِ فَإِنْ أَخَذَ جَازَ ذلك في الْحُكْمُ وَلَزِمَ حتى لَا تَمْلِكَ اسْتِرْدَادَهُ كَذَا في الْبَدَائِعِ وَإِنْ كان النُّشُوزُ من قِبَلِهَا كَرِهْنَا له أَنْ يَأْخُذَ أَكْثَرَ مِمَّا أَعْطَاهَا من الْمَهْرِ وَلَكِنْ مع هذا يَجُوزُ أَخْذُ الزِّيَادَةِ في الْقَضَاءِ كَذَا في غَايَةِ الْبَيَانِ

[3] الفتاوى الهندية – ط. دار الفكر (1/ 488)

لْخُلْعُ إزَالَةُ مِلْكِ النِّكَاحِ بِبَدَلٍ بِلَفْظِ الْخُلْعِ كَذَا في فَتْحِ الْقَدِيرِ وقد يَصِحُّ بِلَفْظِ الْبَيْعِ وَالشِّرَاءِ وقد يَكُونُ بِالْفَارِسِيَّةِ كَذَا في الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ وَشَرْطُهُ شَرْطُ الطَّلَاقِ وَحُكْمُهُ وُقُوعُ الطَّلَاقِ الْبَائِنِ كَذَا في التَّبْيِينِ

 

[4] الفتاوى الهندية – ط. دار الفكر (1/ 489)

وَلَا تَقَعُ الْبَرَاءَةُ عن نَفَقَةِ الْعِدَّةِ في الْخُلْعِ وَالْمُبَارَأَةِ وَالطَّلَاقِ بِمَالٍ إلَّا بِالشَّرْطِ في قَوْلِهِمْ

 

البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق ومنحة الخالق وتكملة الطوري (4/ 97)

وَأَمَّا نَفَقَةُ الْعِدَّةِ فَلَمْ تَدْخُلْ تَحْتَ الْعُمُومِ لِأَنَّهَا لَمْ تَكُنْ وَاجِبَةً قَبْلَ الْخُلْعِ لِتَسْقُطَ بِهِ، وَإِنَّمَا تَسْقُطُ بِالتَّنْصِيصِ

 

[5] الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3/ 238)

لْأُولَى الْخُلْعُ عَلَى مَالٍ، بِأَنْ أُكْرِهَ عَلَى خُلْعِ امْرَأَتِهِ عَلَى أَلْفٍ وَقَدْ تَزَوَّجَهَا عَلَى أَرْبَعَةِ آلَافٍ وَدَخَلَ بِهَا وَالْمَرْأَةُ غَيْرُ مُكْرَهَةٍ فَالْخُلْعُ وَاقِعٌ وَلَهَا عَلَيْهَا الْأَلِفُ؛ وَلَا شَيْءَ عَلَى الَّذِي أَكْرَهَهُ.

وَلَوْ كَانَتْ هِيَ الْمُكْرَهَةُ كَانَ الطَّلَاقُ بَائِنًا وَلَا شَيْءَ عَلَيْهَا